The gastrointestinal tract is subdivided into regions with different roles in digestion and absorption. How this patterning is established is unknown. We now report that the pancreatic-duodenal homeobox 1 gene (pdx1) is also expressed in cells of the distal stomach. Positive cells include subpopulations of the three main endocrine (gastrin, somatostatin and serotonin) cell types of this region. Pdx1 deficient mice were virtually devoid of gastrin cells, had normal numbers of somatostatin cells and increased numbers of serotonin cells. Pdx1 is thus important for development of the gastrin cells of the antropyloric mucosa of the stomach and probably acts by controlling the fate of gastrin/serotonin precursor cells.