High Prevalence of Chloroquine Resistant Plasmodium Falciparum Infection in Rajasthan Epidemic

Acta Trop. 1996 Dec 16;62(3):135-41. doi: 10.1016/s0001-706x(96)00031-9.


Plasmodium falciparum is the main killer among all human malaria parasites. In 1994, there was a falciparum malaria epidemic in Rajasthan, India, with many deaths. We have investigated active falciparum malaria cases from this epidemic and found that most of the parasite isolates (95%) were resistant to chloroquine. Nevertheless, all the tested isolates from the epidemic, were sensitive to mefloquine and quinine and ninety percent were also susceptible to sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine. Most individuals had moderate levels of TNF-alpha (20-220 pg/ml) and anti-parasite IgM antibodies compared to IgG levels which were relatively lower. In conclusion, the high transmission rate of the chloroquine resistant P. falciparum parasite could be the probable cause of the disease epidemic in Rajasthan. The timely drug sensitivity test and availability of appropriate antimalarial drugs are, therefore, warranted.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Antibodies, Protozoan / analysis
  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use*
  • Chloroquine / therapeutic use*
  • Disease Outbreaks*
  • Drug Resistance, Microbial
  • Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Humans
  • Immunoglobulin G / analysis
  • Immunoglobulin M / analysis
  • India / epidemiology
  • Malaria, Falciparum / drug therapy*
  • Malaria, Falciparum / epidemiology*
  • Malaria, Falciparum / mortality
  • Mefloquine / pharmacology
  • Microbial Sensitivity Tests
  • Plasmodium falciparum / drug effects*
  • Plasmodium falciparum / immunology
  • Pyrimethamine / pharmacology
  • Quinine / pharmacology
  • Seroepidemiologic Studies
  • Sulfadoxine / pharmacology
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha / analysis


  • Antibodies, Protozoan
  • Antimalarials
  • Immunoglobulin G
  • Immunoglobulin M
  • Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
  • Sulfadoxine
  • Chloroquine
  • Quinine
  • Mefloquine
  • Pyrimethamine