Murine monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against water-soluble somatic antigens (WSSA) and the wall fraction (WF) from Aspergillus fumigatus were produced by fusion of splenocytes from immunized BALB/c mice with mouse myeloma X63-Ag 8.653 cells. The supernatants of in vitro cultured hybridomas were initially screened for reactivity with the WSSA and the WF from A. fumigatus and WSSA of other fungi in an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Supernatants reacting only with A. fumigatus antigens were subsequently screened for homologous and heterologous reactivity with immunohistochemical techniques using formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from experimentally infected mice. Because of a high immunohistochemical reactivity with homologous fungi, 4 MAbs raised against A. fumigatus WSSA and WF were selected for a further evaluation of cross-reactivity (diagnostic specificity) in immunohistochemical and immunoblotting assays. In immunohistochemical assays, all MAbs raised against WSSA cross-reacted heavily with a number of other fungal species. All 4 MAbs (MAb-WF-AF-1-4) raised against the WF reacted strongly with hyphae of Aspergillus spp.; hyphae of Scedosporium apiospermum were also strongly labeled by MAb-WF-AF-3 and -4. The 2 specifically reacting MAbs (MAb-WF-AF-1 and -2) were of the IgM biotype and were precipitating, and in immunoblotting experiments both bound to a 106-kD antigen of the WF, whereas they did not bind to WSSA of A. fumigatus. One of the 2 aspergillosis-specific MAbs (MAb-WF-AF-1) was used to screen 145 mycotic lesions of cattle. The diagnoses on bovine lesions obtained by MAb-WF-AF-1 were compared with results based on reactivity with heterologously absorbed polyclonal antibodies and, for some lesions, to culture results. In the vast majority of lesions (n = 133), the MAb-WF-AF-1 and the polyclonal anti-Aspergillus antibodies reacted in a similar pattern, i.e., positively in 41 aspergillosis lesions and negatively in 92 zygomycotic lesions. Hyphae in 3 of 12 lesions that were not stained by the polyclonal antibodies reacted with the specific MAb-WF-AF-1; i.e., aspergillosis was diagnosed. The characteristics of the 2 MAbs (MAb-WF-AF-1 and -2) raised against the WF of A. fumigatus in ELISA and immunoblotting and immunohistochemical assays justify their application for the in situ diagnosis of systemic aspergillosis of cattle.