Background: Food intolerance in adults is mostly associated with vague symptoms and not clearly related to atopy and food allergy. A combination of different pathogenetic mechanisms may be responsible for the symptoms.
Objective: The aim of this study was to describe patients with a history of food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in relation to the presence of mucus in the stools, joint swelling and arthralgia and to determine whether or not there is an association between the presence of these parameters, atopic disease and the presence of immune complexes in serum.
Methods: Fifty-eight patients consecutively referred to our clinic with food-related gastrointestinal symptoms were investigated.
Results: Thirty-five patients (60%) had mucus in their stools, 24 patients (41%) complained about joint swelling and 41 patients (71%) had arthralgia. There were no correlations between these parameters and atopy according to Phadiatope test or skin prick test (SPT). No correlations were found between the occurrence of mucus in the stools, arthralgia and joint swelling. There were significantly higher levels of circulating immune complexes in patients with a history of arthralgia compared with patients with no such history (P < 0.03) and the number of individuals with the presence of such immune complexes was higher among the patients with arthralgia than among the patients without. In general the patients did not relate the exposure to certain foods to symptoms like joint swelling, arthralgia and presence of mucus in the stools. However, there were significant positive correlations between food-related gastrointestinal symptoms in the following instances: chocolate-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and mucus in the stools (P = 0.006), vegetable-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and mucus in the stools (P = 0.002) and meat-induced gastrointestinal symptoms and mucus in the stools (P = 0.003). In a group of individuals without food-related symptoms investigated separately, a very low frequency of mucus in the stools, joint swelling and arthralgia was seen (none, two and three individuals of the 20 subjects, respectively). Of 41 patients with immediate onset of gastrointestinal symptoms, 20 were atopic according to Phadiatope and SPT. Of 11 patients with late onset of symptoms 10 were negative in Phadiatope and SPT (P < 0.05). The most frequently involved foods were fruits, vegetables, milk, fish and meat.
Conclusion: The results suggest the involvement of different inflammatogenic mechanisms in food-related gastrointestinal symptoms.