[Transarterial platinum coil embolization for direct carotid-cavernous fistula]

No To Shinkei. 1997 Jan;49(1):85-91.
[Article in Japanese]


Two cases of direct carotid-cavernous fistula (CCF) were treated by transarterial platinum coil embolization (TACE) following unsuccessful transarterial balloon embolization (TABE). Case 1 was a 47-year-old man who complained of pulsatile left exophthalmos, chemosis and bruit. Left carotid angiograms showed a CCF with anterior, posterior and cortical venous drainage. Near total obliteration of the CCF was achieved by TABE, but it showed recurrence in the next morning. At this time, left carotid angiograms showed a CCF which drained only into the cortical veins via the enlarged sphenoparietal sinus. Because of high risk of intracranial hemorrhage, TACE was performed immediately. The result was successful. Case 2 was an 82-year-old woman who suffered from traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage. First right carotid angiograms showed a small CCF which drained only into the inferior petrosal sinus. Right exophthalmos, swelling of the eyelids, severe eye pain and bruit appeared gradually. The second right CAG performed three months after the head trauma showed markedly dilated superior ophthalmic vein which was the new main draining root of the CCF. Because of progressive symptoms, TACE was performed immediately after the angiography, which proved successful. Direct CCFs must be treated aggressively because they don't cure by spontaneous obstruction of fistula. Although TABE is the first choice for direct CCF, complete occlusion of CCF in difficult in some cases. Those cases have; 1) small fistula of CCF for balloon insertion, 2) large fistula for occlusion by balloons, 3) not enough space for inserting a balloon after recurrence of CCF, and 4) sharp objects (bone fracture fragments, foreign objects) may puncture the balloon. If TABE couldn't provide successful treatments, TACE should be considered as an alternative treatment for direct CCF after angiography without delay because it is less complex compared with TABE.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Aged
  • Aged, 80 and over
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / diagnostic imaging
  • Arteriovenous Fistula / therapy*
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / diagnostic imaging
  • Carotid Artery Diseases / therapy*
  • Cavernous Sinus*
  • Embolization, Therapeutic* / methods
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Platinum
  • Radiography


  • Platinum