We developed a tree shrew model of diabetes using streptozotocin (STZ), and studied early ocular changes of diabetes (after one week of diabetes) by fluorophotometry. STZ was injected intraperitoneally at doses of sixty to 400 mg/kg body weight. Animals injected with more than 300 mg/kg of STZ developed diabetes. Corneal autofluorescence was significantly increased one week after STZ injection. These changes may be related to impairment of the ocular homeostatic mechanisms due to the onset of diabetes. Using this model, we might be able to obtain diabetic ocular impairment data closer to human data than in previous models of diabetes, because tree shrews are primates.