Menstrual patterns of workers exposed to low levels of 2-ethoxyethylacetate (EGEEA)

Am J Ind Med. 1997 Feb;31(2):148-52. doi: 10.1002/(sici)1097-0274(199702)31:2<148::aid-ajim3>;2-w.


The objectives of this study were to determine the exposure levels among workers who handle 2-ethoxyethylacetate (EGEEA) in the liquid crystal display (LCD) manufacturing industry and to study the menstrual patterns among the exposed workers compared to a referent group of workers. A total of 52 female exposed workers and 55 referents was studied. Detailed menstrual histories were obtained by personal interview using a structured questionnaire. All the exposed had individual 8-hour personal monitoring for EGEEA in the environment and start-of-shift and end-of-shift urine analysis for EGEEA concentration. The geometric mean end-of-shift urine EGEEA concentration was 0.16 mg/g creatinine. End-of-shift urine EGEEA was well correlated with the air concentration; r = 0.81 [p < 0.0001]. No significant differences were observed between the exposed and referent groups for duration of each menstrual cycle (period), duration (days) of the menses, and the amount of flow, even after adjusting for possible confounders viz. age, years of education, use of oral contraceptive pills, age at menarche, gravidity, and race. The workers in the LCD manufacturing industry were exposed to a mean TWA of 0.51 ppm of EGEEA. At this concentration, the findings did not reveal any significant difference between the menstrual patterns of the exposed and referent subjects.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Air Pollutants, Occupational / analysis
  • Confounding Factors, Epidemiologic
  • Ethylene Glycols / adverse effects*
  • Ethylene Glycols / analysis
  • Ethylene Glycols / urine
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Industry
  • Menstruation / drug effects*
  • Occupational Exposure*
  • Surveys and Questionnaires


  • Air Pollutants, Occupational
  • Ethylene Glycols
  • ethylene glycol monoethyl ether acetate