A dinucleotide repeat polymorphism in a tau intron was identified and used in a case-control study to analyze the genetic association of tau with several neurodegenerative diseases with tau pathology. Subjects with the homozygous tau AO alleles were excessively represented in the progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP) group, compared with the age-matched healthy control group. Consequently, this allele is more frequently found in PSP than in a group of healthy subjects. This trend was not found in Alzheimer's disease or parkinsonism-dementia complex of Guam, both of which are accompanied by major tau pathology. The result suggests a possible involvement of tau in the pathogenesis of PSP.