Highly metastatic hepatocellular carcinomas induced in male F344 rats treated with N-nitrosomorpholine in combination with other hepatocarcinogens show a high incidence of p53 gene mutations along with altered mRNA expression of tumor-related genes

Cancer Lett. 1997 Jan 15;112(1):33-45. doi: 10.1016/s0304-3835(96)04543-0.


The carcinogenic and metastatic processes are thought to consist of a sequence of steps, and animal models featuring highly metastatic lesions are clearly necessary to allow analysis of the whole process of transformation from preneoplastic changes to high grade metastatic tumors, and to access effectiveness of therapeutic treatments of advanced cancers in vivo. The purpose of the present study was to establish a model and to screen for reported genetic alterations in induced lesions. In the present study, it was confirmed that lung metastasis of hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) induced in male F344 rats by N-nitrosomorpholine (NNM), given in the drinking water at a dose of 120 ppm for 24 weeks, was significantly enhanced by additional carcinogenic pretreatments and that a single i.p. injection of 100 mg/kg body weight N-diethylnitrosamine (DEN) alone was sufficient for that purpose. Molecular biological analyses of the induced lesions revealed point mutations in the p53 gene in 60.9% of HCCs, and elevated expression of mRNAs for p53, c-myc, c-fos, TGF-alpha, TGF-beta1, alpha-fetoprotein, GST-P, and GGT, and decreased mRNA expression of EGF and EGFR in HCCs when compared to controls. No obvious association of gene alterations with metastatic potential of primary tumors was found except for an increase in the incidence of p53 mutations. Since the process of metastasis is thought to be sequential and selective, further comparative analysis of metastatic and primary lesions should clarify the mechanisms involved in the multi-step process of metastasis.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Carcinogens
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / chemically induced
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / genetics*
  • Carcinoma, Hepatocellular / secondary
  • Genes, p53 / drug effects*
  • Genes, p53 / genetics
  • Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / chemically induced
  • Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / genetics*
  • Liver Neoplasms, Experimental / pathology
  • Lung Neoplasms / secondary
  • Male
  • Mutation*
  • Nitrosamines
  • Oncogenes / drug effects
  • Oncogenes / genetics
  • RNA, Messenger / metabolism
  • Rats
  • Rats, Inbred F344


  • Carcinogens
  • Nitrosamines
  • RNA, Messenger
  • N-nitrosomorpholine