Mobilized peripheral blood haematopoietic progenitor cells are increasingly being used as against bone marrow (BM) transplants, following high dose chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy for the management of chemosensitive malignancies. Rapid haematopoietic reconstitution as evidenced by reduced duration of neutropaenia, fewer donor platelet infusions, shorter hospital stay and reduced cost of treatment are the advantages of this procedure. Reduced tumour cell contamination of mobilized blood compared to bone marrow however, has not been substantiated. Mobilization of lymphokine activated killer cells (LAK), use of blood stem cells (BSC) for allogeneic transplants and ex vivo expansion of the mobilized cells are emerging as the future areas for research. Addition of interleukin-3 (IL-3), stem cell factor (c-kit ligand) and PIXY-321 appear to open-up new vistas by enforcing trilineage and multilineage haematopoietic reconstitution.