Poly(A)-binding protein (PAB) binds to the poly(A) tail of most eukaryotic mRNAs and influences its translational efficiency as well as its stability. Although the primary structure of PAB is well conserved in eukaryotes, its functional conservation across species has not been extensively investigated. In order to determine whether PAB from a monocot plant species could function in yeast, a protein characterized as having PAB activity was purified from wheat and a cDNA encoding for PAB was isolated from a wheat seedling expression library. Wheat PAB (72 kDa as estimated by SDS/PAGE and a theoretical mass of 70 823 Da as determined from the cDNA) was present in multiple isoforms and exhibited binding characteristics similar to that determined for yeast PAB. Comparison of the wheat PAB protein sequence with PABs from yeast and other species revealed that wheat PAB contained the characteristic features of all PABs, including four RNA binding domains each of which contained the conserved RNP1 and RNP2 sequence motifs. The wheat PAB cDNA functionally complemented a pab1 mutant in yeast suggesting that, although the amino acid sequence of wheat PAB is only 47% conserved from that of yeast PAB, this monocot protein can function in yeast.