We have studied the effects of chronic therapy with cicaprost (a PGI2 analog), fosinopril (a converting enzyme inhibitor), and the combination of both drugs on the progression of experimental diabetic nephropathy. Uninephrectomized streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were maintained for 8 months with plasma glucose between 13.7 and 22.0 mmol/L to hasten renal damage. Systemic and renal parameters were measured periodically, and at sacrifice structural and morphometrical renal studies were performed to evaluate diabetic injury. Control rats exhibited characteristic features of this model, such as high blood pressure and plasma creatinine and urinary albumin excretion, together with prominent alterations in the kidney (renal and glomerular hypertrophies, mesangial matrix expansion, and tubular alterations). The three therapies attenuated equivalently the progression of diabetic renal injury, as estimated by lower urinary albumin excretion, renal and glomerular hypertrophies, and a better renal architectural preservation. No synergistic action was appreciated with the combined therapy. However, renal preservation achieved with cicaprost was not linked to reductions in systemic blood pressure, whereas in the groups treated with fosinopril the hypotensive effect of this drug could have contributed to the positive outcome of the therapy. Therefore, nephroprotection exerted by this PGI2 analog in this model seems more related to the derangement of renal local mechanisms than to systemic blood pressure control. Finally, the possibility that an impaired prostacyclin synthesis or bioavailability is involved in the pathogenesis of the diabetic nephropathy in this model underlies our results.