Isolation and identification of morphine 3- and 6-glucuronides, morphine 3,6-diglucuronide, morphine 3-ethereal sulfate, normorphine, and normorphine 6-glucuronide as morphine metabolites in humans

J Pharm Sci. 1977 Sep;66(9):1288-93. doi: 10.1002/jps.2600660921.


Morphine metabolites were isolated with column chromatography on a resin and neutral aluminum oxide and TLC from the urine of morphine-dependent subjects maintained on morphine sulfate at a dose of 240 mg/day. These metabolites were characterized as morphine 3-glucuronide, morphine 6-glucuronide, morphine 3,6-diglucuronide, morphine 3-ethereal sulfate, normorphine, normorphine 6-glucuronide, and, possibly, normorphine 3-glucuronide by free phenol and glucuronide tests, enzymatic hydrolysis, GLC, TLC, UV spectroscopy, and GLC--mass spectrometry.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Chromatography, Gas
  • Chromatography, Thin Layer
  • Glucuronates / urine
  • Humans
  • Hydrolysis
  • Male
  • Mass Spectrometry
  • Morphine / urine*
  • Morphine Dependence / urine
  • Morphine Derivatives / urine*
  • Phenols / urine


  • Glucuronates
  • Morphine Derivatives
  • Phenols
  • Morphine