For prostate cancer, a correlation exists between overexpression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and poor clinical prognosis. In addition, late-stage metastatic disease is characterized by a change from a paracrine to an autocrine mode of expression for TGF-alpha, the ligand for the EGFR. These observations suggest that activation of the EGFR may be important for the growth of prostatic carcinoma in situ, and blockade of the receptor-ligand interaction may offer a means of therapeutic intervention for this disease. We describe the biologic effects of a chimeric anti-EGFR monoclonal antibody, C225, on several human prostate tumor cell lines in culture and the tumor inhibitory properties of the antibody for the treatment of human prostate carcinoma xenografts in nude mice. In vitro analysis of the EGFR from androgen-responsive and independent prostatic carcinoma cell lines revealed that C225 blocked EGF-induced receptor activation and induced internalization of the receptor. In vivo, a treatment regimen of C225 alone or antibody plus doxorubicin significantly inhibited tumor progression of well-established DU145 and PC-3 xenografts in nude mice. These results suggest that C225 may have utility for the treatment of human prostate carcinoma in a clinical setting.