The clinicopathological features of a series of neuronal and mixed neuronal and astrocytic neoplasms of the CNS are described. Patients were aged 5 to 63 years. Six cases were composed predominantly of small round cells with clear cytoplasm resembling central neurocytoma but lacked the characteristic intraventricular location of that tumor. The remaining five cases had similar neurocytomatous features associated with a benign astrocytic component. Ganglion cells and hyalinization vessels were observed in both groups. The growth fraction evaluated with monoclonal antibody Ki67Mib1 was low, ranging from 1 to 1.5%. Immunohistochemical detection of synaptophysin played a crucial role in identifying the neuronal nature of these neoplasms and was instrumental in distinguishing them from oligodendrogliomas, with which they are readily confused. The neuronal nature of the oligodendroglial-like cells was confirmed ultrastructurally in one case. The present cases, together with others reported previously, suggest that neoplasms of the CNS with "neurocytic" components are more frequent than generally assumed and expand the morphologic spectrum of neuronal and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. Except for one patient who died postoperatively, all patients were alive at follow-up ranging from 6 to 80 months.