Nitric oxide is a membrane-permeant messenger molecule which activates soluble guanylyl cyclase. Using NADPH diaphorase staining as a marker for the enzyme nitric oxide synthase and an antiserum against cyclic GMP (cGMP) we investigated the possible sites of nitric oxide and cGMP synthesis in the retina and lamina of Schistocerca gregaria. The photoreceptor cells did not express NADPH diaphorase staining but monopolar cells of the lamina were strongly stained. After inhibition of phosphodiesterase activity and incubation of tissue in a nitric oxide donor, the photoreceptor cells showed cGMP immunoreactivity. In contrast to the photoreceptors, the monopolar cells of the lamina were not stained. Since the presynaptic photoreceptors were cGMP-immunoreactive and the postsynaptic targets of the monopolar cells did not express immunoreactivity, it is conceivable that nitric oxide released by monopolar cells may play a role as a retrograde messenger in visual information processing.