2-phenylethylamine Catabolism by Escherichia Coli K-12: Gene Organization and Expression

Microbiology. 1997 Feb;143 ( Pt 2):513-8. doi: 10.1099/00221287-143-2-513.


A gene encoding phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase (PAD), the enzyme involved together with a copper-topaquinone-containing amine oxidase in the initial steps of 2-phenylethylamine catabolism, was located at 31.1 min on the Escherichia coli K-12 genetic map. It was immediately adjacent to the gene encoding the amine oxidase but transcribed in the opposite direction. The purified PAD acted almost equally well on phenylacetaldehyde, 4-hydroxyphenylacetaldehyde and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetaldehyde. It had a subunit size of 54 kDa and its deduced amino acid sequence was approximately 40% identical to various eukaryotic and prokaryotic aldehyde dehydrogenases. A third gene encoding a positive regulatory protein required for expression of the amine oxidase and PAD genes was located next to the PAD gene. A gene previously located in this position was reported to encode a second amine oxidase but this was not confirmed. The nucleotide sequence from 1447 to 1450 kb on the E. coli K-12 physical map has been determined.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / genetics*
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases / metabolism
  • Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Escherichia coli / enzymology
  • Escherichia coli / genetics*
  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Bacterial
  • Genes, Bacterial*
  • Genes, Regulator
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors / genetics*
  • Phenethylamines / metabolism*
  • Restriction Mapping
  • Sequence Analysis, DNA
  • Sequence Homology, Amino Acid
  • Species Specificity
  • Substrate Specificity
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • Escherichia coli Proteins
  • Phenethylamines
  • phenethylamine
  • Aldehyde Oxidoreductases
  • phenylacetaldehyde dehydrogenase
  • Amine Oxidase (Copper-Containing)
  • Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-NH Group Donors

Associated data

  • GENBANK/X99402