The presence of antiganglioside antibodies is associated with several neurologic disorders. These antibodies recognize several epitopes, generally saccharides present in these glucolipids. The presence of antiGM antibodies has been described in certain clinical syndromes, the main one being multifocal motor neuropathy with and without conduction blocks. The frequency of antiGM1 class IgM antibody falls between 20 and 80% in this disease. Axon predominant Guillain-Barré syndrome is also associated with high titers of antiGM1 antibodies, although in this case class IgG is implicated. The most important association to date has been established between Miller-Fisher syndrome and the presence of antiGQ1b antibodies. Several authors have reported molecular similarities among these gangliosides and bacterial lipopolysaccharides, mainly Campylobacter iejuni. The principal aims in the study of antiganglioside antibodies are to establish their pathogenic role as well as the clinical usefulness of analyzing for them, and to discover new specificities that aid in the diagnosis and classification of neuropathies, whether they are predominantly motor disorders or chronic sensory ones.