Multidrug-resistant Transport Proteins in Yeast: Complete Inventory and Phylogenetic Characterization of Yeast Open Reading Frames With the Major Facilitator Superfamily

Yeast. 1997 Jan;13(1):43-54. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1097-0061(199701)13:1<43::AID-YEA56>3.0.CO;2-J.


Screening of the complete genome sequence from the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae reveals that 28 open reading frames (ORFs) are homologous to each other and to established bacterial members of the drug-resistant subfamily of the major facilitator superfamily. The phylogenesis of these protein sequences shows that they fall into three major clusters. Cluster I contains 12 ORFs, cluster II contains ten ORFs and cluster III contains six ORFs. Hydropathy analyses indicate that in cluster II and III ORFs, 14 transmembrane spans are predicted whereas only 12 transmembrane spans are predicted in cluster I ORFs. Three ORFs that have known functions as multidrug-resistance pumps in other yeast species such as Schizosaccharomyces pombe (CAR1), Candida albicans (BMRP) or C. maltosa (CYHR), also fall into cluster I. Two S. cerevisiae ORFs of known multidrug-resistance function (ATR1, SGE1) fall into cluster II. Cluster III consists exclusively of ORFs of unknown function but binary sequence comparisons show homology to ORFs from cluster II. Analysis of the multiple alignment for these proteins leads to the identification of characteristic signature sequences for each of the three clusters.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Carrier Proteins / genetics*
  • Drug Resistance, Multiple / genetics*
  • Fungal Proteins / genetics*
  • Genome, Fungal
  • Models, Molecular
  • Molecular Sequence Data
  • Multigene Family
  • Open Reading Frames
  • Protein Conformation
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / genetics
  • Saccharomyces cerevisiae / metabolism
  • Sequence Alignment
  • Sequence Homology
  • Yeasts / genetics
  • Yeasts / metabolism*


  • Carrier Proteins
  • Fungal Proteins

Associated data

  • GENBANK/L11640
  • GENBANK/L42348
  • GENBANK/M20319
  • GENBANK/M64932
  • GENBANK/M86657
  • GENBANK/U00062
  • GENBANK/U11583
  • GENBANK/U12141
  • GENBANK/U18795
  • GENBANK/U28371
  • GENBANK/X53823
  • GENBANK/X59720
  • GENBANK/X66121
  • GENBANK/X87941
  • GENBANK/X89633
  • GENBANK/Z14035
  • GENBANK/Z28202
  • GENBANK/Z28330
  • GENBANK/Z35877
  • GENBANK/Z35912
  • GENBANK/Z36049
  • GENBANK/Z36162
  • GENBANK/Z46833
  • GENBANK/Z48758
  • GENBANK/Z49259
  • GENBANK/Z49704
  • GENBANK/Z72923
  • GENBANK/Z73133
  • GENBANK/Z74900
  • GENBANK/Z75286