GABA was injected intraperitoneally to rats in single doses of 2.5 to 1500 mg/kg. Thirty minutes after injection a dose-dependent increase in dopamine (DA) and a decrease in noradrenaline (NA) content were observed in the brain. However, in the lowest dose range these levels showed small but significant changes in the opposite direction. The accumulation of dopa after inhibition of the aromatic L-aminoacid decarboxylase was enhanced by i.p. GABA both in DA- and in NA-predominated brain regions, the dose-response relations being complex. Increased levels of serotonin (5-HT), 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) and tryptophan as well as enhanced accumulation of 5-hydroxytryptophan, induced by decarboxylase inhibition were also observed. The general pattern of effects was similar to that previously observed after intracerebroventricular injection of GABA, although the intraperitoneal doses required were higher. It is suggested that a certain penetration of GABA from the blood into the brain can occur, leading to changes in the physiological activity of monoaminergic neurons.