Twenty-one infants, 2 years old or younger, received 21 renal transplants between 1983 and 1995. Six of the transplantations were performed from 1983 to 1989, and the remaining 15 were performed from 1990 to 1995. The median age at transplantation was 16.0 months and the median body weight was 9.0 kg. Living-related donor kidneys were used in 15 cases, an adult cadaveric donor kidney was used in one case, and pediatric cadaveric donor kidneys were used in five cases. All grafts were placed intra-abdominally. The immunosuppressive therapy consisted of cyclosporine, azathioprine, and prednisolone. No prophylactic antithymocyte globulins were used. Five infants have died, one with a functioning graft and four after loss of graft function. All graft losses and deaths occurred during the first 6 months after transplantation. The 5-year patient survival and graft survival rates were 87% for recipients of living donor grafts and 44% for recipients of cadaveric grafts. The median height SD score increased from -3.7 before operation to -1.9 at 1 year, -0.7 at 3 years, and -1.1 at 5 years. The glomerular filtration rate in absolute values remained stable in all infants, whereas a reduction in glomerular filtration rate related to body surface area was seen at follow-up, 5 years after transplantation. We conclude that renal transplantation can be performed with good long-term results in children less than 2 years old.