CD4 is the primary cellular receptor for human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), but is not sufficient for entry of HIV-1 into cells. After a decade-long search, the cellular coreceptors that HIV-1 requires in conjunction with CD4 have been identified as members of the chemokine receptor family of seven-transmembrane G-protein coupled receptors. The discovery of distinct chemokine receptors that support entry of T-cell tropic (CXCR-4) and macrophage tropic HIV-1 strains (CCR-5) explains the differences in cell tropism between viral strains, the inability of HIV-1 to infect most nonprimate cells, and the resistance of a small percentage of the population to HIV-1 infection. Further understanding of the role of chemokine receptors in viral entry may also help explain the evolution of more pathogenic forms of the virus, viral transmission, and HIV-induced pathogenesis. These recent discoveries will aid the development of strategies for combating HIV-1 transmission and spread, the understanding of HIV-1 fusion mechanisms, and the possible development of small animal models for HIV-1 drug and vaccine testing.