Urolithiasis in childhood is of diverse etiology requiring carefully planned individualized diagnostic and management protocols. The efficiency in diagnosis and management of urolithiasis in childhood follows a learning curve, especially when using the more recent technical innovations for management of urinary calculi. With current technical sophistication of transurethral and percutaneous techniques and ESWL, management of urolithiasis during childhood should be relatively straightforward as monotherapy using a single modality or as a combined approach with one or more techniques, saving open surgical intervention for situations where the new technology is either unavailable or inappropriate, or when surgical reconstruction of the urinary tract is necessary to forestall recurrent calculus formation. Postoperative morbidity after management of urinary calculi during childhood appears insignificant; calculus recurrence is uncommon. Long-term postoperative follow-up is mandatory, especially after using the newer technical innovations for urinary calculus management during childhood.