Neuroblastoma (NB), a childhood radiosensitive tumor, is very aggressive and malignant, in its disseminated form, despite very intensive chemotherapy, prognosis continues to be dismal. Owing to its capacity to concentrate in NB lesions, large doses of 131-I-MIBG, have given very encouraging therapeutic results in patients resistant to conventional therapy as well as at diagnosis. We recently reported the first attempt in combination therapy (CO-TH) using 131-I-MIBG and cisplatin. This new form of CO-TH appears very effective in obtaining a rapid and excellent response in relapsed patients. In this report, we describe the results of further experience with CO-TH in disseminated NB. We have attempted to verify to what extent interaction between the effects of the two agents may produce therapeutic benefit, and we have sought the optimization of CO-TH use. Three stage IV NB patients were treated with CO-TH. The following treatment schedule, was planned: day 1, cisplatin 50 mg/m3 i.v. over 6 h; day 2, 131-I-MIBG 100-130 mCi at high specific activity (-1.1 Gbq/mg) i.v. over 6 h followed, a week later, by the same treatment combination. The therapeutic results were encouraging. However, hematological toxicity continued to represent a major limiting factor. In view of the overall effectiveness of CO-TH, at the price of lasting hematological toxicity, it may be indicated as a consolidation regimen some time before conditioning chemotherapy for autologous bone marrow transplantation.