We evaluated the effectiveness and safety of vancomycin (VCM) alone and in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics in the treatment of MRSA infections, and obtained the following results: 1. Effectiveness. (1) In cases of MRSA infections alone, the improvement rate was 71.4% (5/7 patients) with VCM alone and 77.8% (35/45) with VCM in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics. (2) In cases of polymicrobial infections, few cases were treated with VCM alone, but the improvement rate in combination use with beta-lactam antibiotics was 71.8% (28/39). 2. Bacteriological effect. (1) In cases of single infection with MRSA, the rate of bacterial eradication was 71.4% (5/7) with VCM alone and 68.2% (30/44) with VCM in combination with beta-lactam antibiotics. (2) In cases of polymicrobial infections, few cases were treated with VCM alone, but the rate of bacterial eradication in combination use with be ta-lactam antibiotics was 63.2% (24/38) against MRSA and 31.6% (12/38) against polymicrobial agents including MRSA. 3. Safety. Occurrences of adverse reactions and abnormal laboratory test values when VCM was used alone or when it is used in combination with another drug were about the same in these uses. As a whole, advance reactions were observed in 16 patients (9.5%). Main adverse reactions were whole body redness, drug eruption, and rash etc. Abnormal laboratory test values were observed mainly in hepatic functions, and renal functions. 4. VCM concentrations in blood was determined in 38 patients. Doses of 0.5 g and 1.0 g of VCM was administered by intravenous drip infusion over a period of 1 to 2 hours, and mean blood concentrations 1 to 2 hours after the completion of drip infusion were 25.4 micrograms/ml and 14.4 micrograms/ml, respectively. 5. Synergic effects between VCM and other antibiotics tested were observed in FIC index against all of the six MRSA strains isolated from six patients, and the clinical effects of improvement or better were obtained against five of them.