This study examined the efficacy of computer-assisted cognitive rehabilitation (CACR) in persons with traumatic brain injury (TBI). Twenty persons with TBI who received hierarchically based CACR following inpatient neurorehabilitation were compared to a group of 20 persons with TBI matched for age, education, days in coma and time between testing. The comparison group received various other therapies including speech therapy and occupational therapy. The difference between pre- and post-treatment neuropsychological test scores was used to measure improvements in the domains of attention, visual spatial ability, memory and problem-solving. CACR and the comparison group showed significant post-treatment gains on the neuropsychological test scores, with CACR making significant gains on 15 measures and the comparison group on seven measures. However, we found no significant differences between the groups on their post-treatment gains. Results from this preliminary study found that, though significant cognitive gains were obtained after CACR, the extent and nature of these gains remains to be shown in controlled, prospective group studies.