Hepatocellular carcinoma is a deadly disease and the most common form of primary liver disease in the world. A great deal of new research into all aspects of the disease is reported each year. This review examined many of the most recent publications concerning HCC and reports some of the more interesting developments. The paper attempts to highlight information which may be of practical use to health care providers and provides a source of references for further investigation. Some of the latest information concerning prognosis, etiology, diagnostic techniques is summarized. This article also discusses advances in the therapy, both medical and surgical, for Hepatocellular carcinoma.