Sixty-six patients have been treated with Panax Ginseng C.A. Meyer extract, of whom 30 oligoastenospermic sine causa (group A), 16 oligoastenospermic with idiopathic varicocele (group B). Twenty age-matched volunteers were used as controls (group C). Use of Panax Ginseng extract showed an increase in spermatozoa number/ml and progressive oscillating motility, an increase in plasma total and free testosterone, DHT, FSH and LH levels, but a decrease in mean PRL. It is suggested that ginsenosides may have an effect at different levels of the hypothalamus-pituitary-testis axis.