We investigated associations between diet and premenopausal bilateral breast cancer in a familial matched case-control study. We studied 140 cases from population-based registries in Los Angeles County (California) and Connecticut, and from the major hospitals in the southern parts of the Province of Quebec. Unaffected sisters of the cases served as matched controls (222 total). Dietary intake were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, oleic acid, and linoleic acid intake was inversely associated with premenopausal bilateral breast cancer risk. Consumption of carbohydrates (and sweetened beverages) was associated with an increased risk. We observed no associations for dietary fiber, antioxidants, or major food groupings, but we did observe inverse associations for intake of low fat dairy products and tofu. These findings suggest that monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fats, as well as soy foods, might reduce the risk of premenopausal bilateral breast cancer.