A form of autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) similar in clinical features to human ADPKD occurs in the Persian cat. We characterized the morphologic and immunohistochemical features of this disease in a colony of affected cats. Complete postmortem examinations were performed on 11 normal and 22 affected cats ranging in age from 3 months to 10 years. Kidneys were evaluated by gross and histologic examinations, ultrastructure, lectin staining, bromodeoxyuridine immunochemistry for labeling index and immunochemistry for distribution of Na/K ATPase. Feline ADPKD was characterized by variable numbers of cysts in the renal cortex and medullar. Ultrastructural examination and lectin staining suggested that cysts arose from proximal and distal nephron segments. Bromodeoxyuridine labeling demonstrated increased proliferation of epithelium lining some cysts in young cats. Immunohistochemical staining showed variable translocation of Na/K ATPase from the basolateral membranes of cyst-lining cells to the cytoplasm or luminal membranes. Cystic renal disease commonly was associated with chronic tubulointerstitial nephritis and hepatobiliary hyperplasia and fibrosis. Focal hyperplasia of renal tubular epithelium, hepatic cysts, and cardiac lesions were present in some cats. Feline ADPKD shares many morphologic and pathogenetic features with human ADPKD.