This review assesses the continuing role of noninvasive vacuum therapy as treatment for erectile dysfunction and discusses the action of negative pressure in producing assisted erection. Through recent research in this area has centered on the development of pharmaceutical therapies, vacuum-therapy programs appear to be a consistent long-term option for patients experiencing either chronic or occasional impotence of any etiology. Very little testing is required before the initiation of vacuum treatment, and the overall; clinical success rate is approximately 90%. Significant success has been reported in more difficult patient populations, including those with veno-occlusive disorders and explanted penile prostheses. Vacuum therapy may also be used in conjunction with other therapies to enhance results. Contraindications to the use of vacuum therapy are few and primarily include patients with unexplained intermittent priapism and bleeding disorders. Side effects such as occasional numbness, pain, penile bruising, or petechiae have a low incidence. A recently reported survey of 5,847 vacuum users showed that 83.5% of patients continue to use the device for intercourse as desired. Patients should receive individual instruction in the use of these devices and should expect a learning or practice period to achieve optimal results. As newer treatments for erectile dysfunction gain increasing attention, it should be kept in mind that nearly every patient showing impotence of any degree or duration as well as patients who have failed other therapeutic choices are candidates for vacuum therapy.