Horizontal cells feed back to cones by shifting the cone calcium-current activation range

Vision Res. 1996 Dec;36(24):3943-53. doi: 10.1016/s0042-6989(96)00142-3.


We studied feedback from horizontal cells to cones in isolated goldfish retinae and found that surround stimuli evoke an inward current and a slowly developing outward current. The surround-evoked currents are blocked by the glutamate antagonist 6,7-dinitroquinoxaline-2,3-dione (DNQX) and are, like horizontal cell responses, most effectively evoked by large stimuli. This indicates that the currents are caused by feedback from horizontal cells. The surround-evoked inward current is neither blocked by picrotoxin nor carried by chloride. Instead, it is carried by calcium, and it triggers a slowly developing calcium-dependent chloride current. We were unable to mimick the surround-evoked currents by modulating the extracellular GABA concentration. We conclude that when horizontal cells hyperpolarize they feed back to the cones by shifting the cone calcium-current activation range to more negative potentials. This type of feedback, directly targeted at the calcium current, scarcely influences the membrane potential of the receiving neuron, but effectively modulates its synaptic output.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Calcium / metabolism*
  • Electrophysiology
  • Feedback
  • Goldfish / physiology*
  • Ion Transport
  • Patch-Clamp Techniques
  • Photic Stimulation
  • Retina / cytology
  • Retina / physiology*
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / drug effects
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / physiology*
  • Retinal Cone Photoreceptor Cells / radiation effects
  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid / pharmacology


  • gamma-Aminobutyric Acid
  • Calcium