The neurotrophins signal cell survival, differentiation, growth cessation, and apoptosis through two cell surface receptors, the Trks and p75NTR (p75 neurotrophin receptor). Recent advances indicate that the particular events that are mediated by neurotrophins are dependent upon the cell type and the expression pattern of each neurotrophin receptor. For example, TrkA activation induces cell death of neural tumor cells, and survival and differentiation of neurons. Likewise, p75NTR, when activated in the absence of a strong Trk signal, induces apoptosis of neurons, while in the presence of Trk it enhances responses to neurotrophin. These differing responses point to a complex interplay between neurotrophin-stimulated survival, differentiation, and apoptosis pathways.