Endurance training increases the capacity for utilization of fatty acids. Since fatty acids are believed to enter cells via facilitated diffusion a possible mechanism behind this adaptation to training might be a training-induced increase in membrane content of putative fatty acid transporters. We investigated whether the expression of the 40 KD membrane associated fatty acid binding protein (FABPpm) in skeletal muscle is increased with endurance training in man. The FABPpm was detectable in a crude membrane preparation from human skeletal muscle. Three weeks of intense one-legged endurance training increased (p < 0.05) the content of FABPpm by 49% whereas in the untrained control muscle no change was observed. In addition, the activity of citrate synthase was increased (p < 0.05) by 20% in the trained compared with the untrained muscle. It is concluded that expression of FABPpm in human skeletal muscle is increased with endurance training consistent with a role of FABPpm as a sarcolemmal fatty acid transporter.