The therapeutic significance of recombinant human DNase I in treating the patients with cystic fibrosis has risen our interests in identifying other human DNase I-like enzymes to study their biological significance. Here we described our work of cloning and characterization of a novel gene, which encodes a human protein homologous to human DNase I. A full length cDNA clone of this gene consists of 1290 bp, encoding a polypeptide of 306 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence of this novel human DNase (nhDNase) is 45% identical to that of human DNase I. Among sixteen human tissues examined by Northern Blot, high level expression of nhDNase was found in human liver and spleen. Recombinant protein of nhDNase was produced in a Baculovirus expression system and purified by chromatography and reverse-phase HPLC. Purified recombinant nhDNase migrated as a single band of about 33 kD molecular weight analyzed by SDS-PAGE. The DNase activity of nhDNase was demonstrated by assay of hydrolysis of S.S.DNA. Its activity was dependent upon the presence of divalent metal irons, calcium and magnesium. However, unlike bovine pancreas DNase I, nhDNase was not inhibited by G-actin of bovine muscle, which indicates the physiological significance of this enzyme in clinical implication.