Nonspecific stimulation with immunoadjuvants significantly improves glucose tolerance in animal models for non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). In this study, we observed the effect of long-term treatment with complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA) on serum factors and histology of various organs in KK-Ay mice with NIDDM. The mice were injected with CFA weekly or every 2 weeks for 12 weeks. Glucose tolerance was significantly improved in the CFA-treated mice throughout the experiment. At the end of the experiment, hypertriglyceridemia was significantly reduced, but serum total protein, glutamic pyruvic transaminase, creatinine, and nonfasting insulin levels were not changed by the treatment. Fatty change of the liver and index of glomerular lesions of the kidney were significantly inhibited in the CFA-treated mice, whereas the pancreatic islet morphology remained unchanged. No toxic effect was observed by the CFA treatment. These results imply that the novel treatment with CFA could control NIDDM and inhibit the development of diabetic glomerular lesions in KK-Ay mice.