Comparative inhibition of yeast glutathione reductase by arsenicals and arsenothiols

Chem Res Toxicol. 1997 Jan;10(1):27-33. doi: 10.1021/tx960139g.


Tri(gamma-glutamylcysteinylglycinyl)trithioarsenite (AsIII(GS)3) is formed in cells and is a more potent mixed-type inhibitor of the reduction of glutathione disulfide (GSSG) by yeast glutathione (GSH) reductase than either arsenite (AsIII) or GSH. The present work examines the effects of valence and complexation of arsenicals with GSH or L-cysteine (Cys) upon potency as competitive inhibitors of the reduction of GSH disulfide (GSSG) by yeast GSH reductase. Trivalent arsenicals were more potent inhibitors than their pentavalent analogs, and methylated trivalent arsenicals were more potent inhibitors than was inorganic trivalent As. Complexation of either inorganic trivalent As or methylarsonous diiodide (CH3As(III)I2) with Cys or GSH produced inhibitors of GSH reductase that were severalfold more potent than the parent arsenicals. In contrast, dimethylarsinous iodide ((CH3)2As(III)I) was a more potent inhibitor than its complexes with either GSH or Cys. Complexes of CH3AsIII with GSH (CH3-AsIII(GS)2) or with Cys (CH3AsIII(Cys)2) were the most potent inhibitors, with Ki's of 0.009 and 0.018 mM, respectively. Inhibition of GSH reductase by arsenicals or arsenothiols was prevented by addition of meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) to a mixture of enzyme, GSSG, and inhibitor before addition of NADPH. DMSA added to the reaction mixture after NADPH reversed inhibition by (CH3)2As(III)I but had little effect on inhibition by CH3As(III)I2, Ch3AsIII(GS)2, CH3AsIII(Cys)2, or AsIII(GS)3. Partial redox inactivation of the enzyme with NADPH increased the inhibitory potency of CH3As(III)I2 and (CH3)2As(III)I and changed the mode of inhibition for CH3As(III)I2 from competitive to noncompetitive. The greater potency of methylated trivalent arsenicals and arsenothiols than of inorganic trivalent As suggests that biomethylation of As could yield species that inhibit reduction of GSSG and alter the redox status of cells.

Publication types

  • Comparative Study
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arsenicals / chemistry
  • Arsenicals / pharmacology*
  • Chelating Agents / pharmacology
  • Cysteine / chemistry
  • Cysteine / pharmacology
  • Glutathione / analogs & derivatives
  • Glutathione / chemistry
  • Glutathione / metabolism
  • Glutathione / pharmacology
  • Glutathione Disulfide
  • Glutathione Reductase / antagonists & inhibitors*
  • NADP / pharmacology
  • Oxidation-Reduction
  • Structure-Activity Relationship
  • Succimer / pharmacology
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / chemistry
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds / pharmacology*
  • Yeasts / enzymology


  • Arsenicals
  • Chelating Agents
  • Sulfhydryl Compounds
  • NADP
  • Succimer
  • Glutathione Reductase
  • Glutathione
  • Cysteine
  • Glutathione Disulfide