The aim of this study was to determine whether or not testosterone regulates the lipid concentration in rat lung tissue. Rats were either sham-operated controls, castrated, or castrated and injected with testosterone. Twenty-one days after castration, we observed in relation to the control: (i) Total lipids, phospholipids, and total cholesterol increased, while triglycerides decreased in whole lung. (ii) Phospholipid concentration increased in microsomes, lamellar bodies, and alveolar macrophages, but it decreased in extracellular surfactant. (iii) On a percentage basis, the concentration of phosphatidylcholine increased in microsomes, lamellar bodies, and alveolar macrophages, and it decreased in extracellular surfactant. (iv) Protein concentration decreased in extracellular surfactant and increased in microsomes, lamellar bodies, and alveolar macrophages. (v) The incorporation of [14C]glycerol into phospholipids of lung slices increased. (vi) The activity of CTP:phosphocholine cytidylytransferase bound to the microsomal fraction increased without any change in the activity of the soluble form of the enzyme in the lung. The results obtained when testosterone was administered to castrated rats were similar to those obtained in the control in all cases. These results suggest that the lipid concentration in the lung is regulated at least partly directly or indirectly by androgens.