Mucormycosis is a fulminant fungal infection occurring in debilitated patients with an underlying pathologic condition. The rhinocerebral form of the disease, which comprises nearly one half of recently reported cases, is most often found in uncontrolled diabetics or profoundly dehydrated children. Infection usually begins in the nose and progresses through the paranasal sinuses, invading the orbit and CNS secondarily. Despite the known pathogenesis of this disease, the ophthalmologist is often first to consider the diagnosis, due to inadequate intranasal examination by the primary physician. The delay caused by late occurrence of orbital manifestations has resulted in poor survival rates, despite vigorous therapy. In recent years, increased physician awareness has led to earlier diagnosis of rhinocerebral mucormycosis. This report presents 13 cases with which we have delt since 1963. The long-term survival rate is 85%. Aggressive surgical therapy, with repeated debridement, in combination with intravenous amphotericin B, have led to this high rate of cure.