Inoculation of turnip crinkle virus (TCV) into a (TCV)-resistant line of Arabidopsis thaliana, Di-17, results in the development of a hypersensitive response (HR) on the inoculated leaves. In contrast, an HR does not occur when leaves of the TCV-susceptible Di-3 line or the susceptible ecotypes Columbia (Col-0), or Landsberg erecta (Ler) are inoculated. Genetic analysis of progeny from crosses between Di-17 and either Di-3, Col-0 or Ler demonstrates that the development of an HR is regulated by a single dominant nuclear locus, herein designated HRT. Using progeny from a Di-17 x Col-0 cross, HRT was mapped to chromosome 5, where it is tightly linked to the DFR locus. We also demonstrate that a variety of resistance-associated phenomena, including the TCV-induced accumulation of salicylic acid, camalexin and autofluorescent cell-wall material, correlate with the HR, suggesting the possibility that HRT is required for their activation.