A retrospective data collection was performed on 29 children diagnosed with neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus between 1983-1993 from Pediatric Oncology Group institutions. The aim was to describe neurologic outcome in children with neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus. Age at diagnosis ranged from one month to 4 years (median age, 18 months). The duration of opsoclonus-myoclonus symptoms prior to the diagnosis of neuroblastoma ranged from 6 days to 17 months (median duration, 6 weeks). There was a prevalence of low stage disease according to the POG staging system: stage A (n = 18), stage B (n = 3), stage C (n = 7), stage D (n = 1). There was a predominance of paraspinal primary tumors. There was no case of Nmyc amplification (0/17), and 2/8 cases were diploid. Treatment for neuroblastoma consisted of surgery alone in 19/29 (18 stage A, 1 stage C in thorax), and surgery plus chemotherapy in 10/ 29. No patient received radiotherapy. Treatment for opsoclonus-myoclonus ranged varied. Six children received no treatment for opsoclonus-myoclonus. The following agents were used ACTH (n = 14), prednisone (n = 12), IV IgG (n = 6), immuran (n = 2), depakote (n = 1), and inderal (n = 1). Eighteen of 29 children (62%) had resolution of opsoclonus-myoclonus symptoms. The range of time for recovery was a few days to 3 years. However the majority recovered over several months. Twenty of 29 children (69%) had persistent neurologic deficits including speech delay, cognitive deficits, motor delay, and behavioral problems. Of the 9 children who had complete recovery of opsoclonus-myoclonus without neurologic sequelae, age at diagnosis and duration of symptoms were not different from the entire group. Interestingly, 6/9 children with complete recovery received chemotherapy as part of their treatment. In conclusion, persistent neurologic deficits are characteristic for children with neuroblastoma and opsoclonus-myoclonus. Treatment with chemotherapy may improve the neurologic outcome.