SH2 and SH3-containing adaptor proteins: redundant or independent mediators of intracellular signal transduction

Genes Cells. 1996 Jul;1(7):595-613. doi: 10.1046/j.1365-2443.1996.00258.x.


Molecules which contain Src Homology 2 (SH2) and SH3 domains provide one of the principal ways by which signals are transduced in cells using protein-protein interactions between proline-rich motifs and SH3 domains and induced interactions between phosphotyrosine residues and SH2 domains. The simplest of SH2/SH3-containing proteins are the Crk, Grb2 and Nck adaptor proteins which contain SH2 and SH3 domains but no intrinsic catalytic activity. Whereas Grb2 connects activated receptor tyrosine kinases with Sos and activates p21ras, recent evidence suggests that this may not be the major mechanism by which Crk and Nck signal to downstream effectors. Identification of novel binding partners for Crk, Grb2 and Nck indicate that these adaptor proteins control distinct aspects of tyrosine kinase signalling.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing*
  • Amino Acid Sequence
  • Animals
  • Carrier Proteins / chemistry
  • Carrier Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Molecular Structure
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases / metabolism
  • Proteins / chemistry*
  • Proteins / genetics
  • Proteins / metabolism*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / chemistry
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins / metabolism
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk
  • Receptors, Growth Factor / metabolism
  • Signal Transduction*
  • ras Proteins / metabolism
  • src Homology Domains* / genetics


  • Adaptor Proteins, Signal Transducing
  • Carrier Proteins
  • GRAP2 protein, human
  • Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-crk
  • Receptors, Growth Factor
  • Protein-Tyrosine Kinases
  • ras Proteins