We have identified distinct domains of the rat extracellular matrix glycoprotein tenascin-R using recombinant fragments of the molecule that confer neuronal cell functions. In short-term adhesion assays (0.5 h), cerebellar neurons adhered best to the fragment representing the fibrinogen knob (FG), but also the fibronectin type III (FN) repeats 1-2 and 6-8. FG, FN1-2 and FN3-5 were the most repellent fragments for neuronal cell bodies. Neurites and growth cones were strongly repelled from areas coated with fragments containing the cysteine-rich stretch and the EGF-like domains (EGF-L), FN1-2, FN3-5 and FG. Polarization of morphology of hippocampal neurons was exclusively associated with FG, while EGF-L prevented neurite outgrowth altogether. The binding site of the neuronal receptor for tenascin-R, the immunoglobulin superfamily adhesion molecule F3/11, was localized to EGF-L. The combined observations show distinct, but also overlapping functions for the different tenascin-R domains. They further suggest the existence of multiple neuronal tenascin-R receptors which influence the response of neurons to their extracellular matrix environment.