In India, molecular mapping and tagging of agronomically important genes using RFLP and RAPD markers have been carried out in three different crops: rice, mustard and chickpea. In rice, tagging of genes for resistance to gall midge and blast has been accomplished. Molecular mapping of cooking quality traits in rice is in progress. For fingerprinting rice cultivars, suitable probe enzyme combinations have been identified. In mustard, a partial RFLP linkage map has been constructed and one of the yellow seed-coat colour loci has been mapped. Significant associations of RFLP markers with quantitative traits have also been established. Potential use of RAPD markers to identify heterotic groups among mustard accessions has been demonstrated. In chickpea, the occurrence of considerable interspecific DNA polymorphism as revealed by RAPD analysis has facilitated construction of a partial linkage map.