Polyclonal antibodies against the N-terminus of the rat rho1 subunit were used to study the distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid C (GABA(C)) receptors in the cat, goldfish, and chicken retina. Strong punctate immunoreactivity was present in the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of all three species. The punctate labelling suggests a clustering of the GABA(C) receptors at synaptic sites. Weak label was also found in the outer plexiform layer (OPL) and over the cell bodies of bipolar cells. Double immunostaining of vertical sections with an antibody against protein kinase C (PKC) showed the punctate immunofluorescence to colocalize with bipolar cell axon terminals. In the goldfish retina, the axon terminals of Mb1 bipolar cells were enclosed by rho-immunoreactive puncta. In the chicken retina, several distinct strata within the IPL showed a high density of rho-immunoreactive puncta. The results suggest a high degree of sequence homology between the rho subunits of different vertebrate species, and they show that the retinal localization of GABA(C) receptors is similar across different species.