Comparative Efficacy of Halofantrine, Chloroquine and Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine for Treatment of Acute Uncomplicated Falciparum Malaria in Nigerian Children

Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. Jan-Feb 1997;91(1):58-62. doi: 10.1016/s0035-9203(97)90397-7.

Abstract

One hundred and ten children aged 6 months to 11 years were randomly treated with halofantrine (HF), sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (S-P) or chloroquine (CQ) for acute uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an endemic area of south-western Nigeria. The response of infection to treatment in each child was monitored for 14 d. The mean fever clearance times were 1.9 d (n = 36), 1.6 d (n = 27), and 1-7 d (n = 28) for children treated with HF, S-P and CQ, respectively. The parasite clearance times were 3.4 d (n = 39), 4.4 d (n = 24) and 4.1 d (n = 15) in the 3 groups of children. The cure rate at day 7 was 92.3% (36/39) in children treated with HF, 72.7% (24/33) in those treated with S-P, and 39.5% (15/38) in those treated with CQ. By day 14, 4 of 36 (11.1%) parasitologically cured patients treated with HF had experienced recrudescences. The corresponding figures among children treated with S-P or CQ were 8.3% and 13.3%, respectively. The 3 drugs were well tolerated. The results of the study showed a further decline in the sensitivity of P. falciparum infections to CQ, while HF and S-P remained relatively effective in the treatment of malaria in south-west Nigeria.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial
  • Comparative Study
  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Acute Disease
  • Anemia / complications
  • Antimalarials / adverse effects
  • Antimalarials / therapeutic use*
  • Child
  • Child, Preschool
  • Chloroquine / adverse effects
  • Chloroquine / therapeutic use
  • Drug Therapy, Combination
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Malaria, Falciparum / complications
  • Malaria, Falciparum / drug therapy*
  • Male
  • Nigeria
  • Parasitemia / complications
  • Parasitemia / drug therapy*
  • Parasitemia / physiopathology
  • Phenanthrenes / adverse effects
  • Phenanthrenes / therapeutic use
  • Pyrimethamine / therapeutic use
  • Recurrence
  • Sulfadoxine / therapeutic use
  • Treatment Outcome

Substances

  • Antimalarials
  • Phenanthrenes
  • Sulfadoxine
  • Chloroquine
  • halofantrine
  • Pyrimethamine