Interactions among genes regulating ovule development in Arabidopsis thaliana

Genetics. 1997 Apr;145(4):1109-24.


The INNER NO OUTER (INO) and AINTEGUMENTA (ANT) genes are essential for ovule integument development in Arabidopsis thaliana. Ovules of ino mutants initiate two integument primordia, but the outer integument primordium forms on the opposite side of the ovule from the normal location and undergoes no further development. The inner integument appears to develop normally, resulting in erect, unitegmic ovules that resemble those of gymnosperms. ino plants are partially fertile and produce seeds with altered surface topography, demonstrating a lineage dependence in development of the testa. ant mutations affect initiation of both integuments. The strongest of five new ant alleles we have isolated produces ovules that lack integuments and fail to complete megasporogenesis. ant mutations also affect flower development, resulting in narrow petals and the absence of one or both lateral stamens. Characterization of double mutants between ant, ino and other mutations affecting ovule development has enabled the construction of a model for genetic control of ovule development. This model proposes parallel independent regulatory pathways for a number of aspects of this process, a dependence on the presence of an inner integument for development of the embryo sac, and the existence of additional genes regulating ovule development.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, Non-P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Arabidopsis / genetics*
  • Arabidopsis / growth & development
  • Arabidopsis Proteins*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Developmental*
  • Gene Expression Regulation, Plant*
  • Genes, Plant
  • Plant Proteins / genetics
  • Plant Proteins / physiology*
  • Seeds / growth & development*
  • Seeds / ultrastructure
  • Transcription Factors / genetics
  • Transcription Factors / physiology*


  • AINTEGUMENTA protein, Arabidopsis
  • Arabidopsis Proteins
  • Plant Proteins
  • Transcription Factors