Six patients who underwent segmental autotransplantation of the caudal pancreas (SAT) following total pancreatectomy for pancreatic cancer were investigated. The graft was transplanted to the left groin, and pancreatic juice was diverted outside through a polyethylene tube indwelled into the main pancreatic duct. In these SAT patients, the responses of insulin (IRIS) in terms of plasma levels and pancreatic secretion to subcutaneous injections of somatostatin octreotide (Sandostatin: SMS201-995) were simultaneously observed. Four doses (0.039, 0.156, 0.625 and 2.5 micrograms/kg) of SMS201-995 were given on separate days. As a control, saline was injected subcutaneously. Standard liquid test meal was given 1 h after the subcutaneous injection. The basal plasma IRI were significantly decreased with doses greater than 0.156 microgram/kg. The postprandial responses of IRI was also significantly suppressed with the same doses. On the other hand, the basal pancreatic exocrine secretion was significantly suppressed with doses greater than 0.625 microgram/kg. The postprandial pancreatic exocrine secretion was also significantly suppressed with doses greater than 0.625 microgram/kg. Those suppressions were dose-dependent. The postprandial CCK secretion was also significantly suppressed in dose-dependent manner with SMS201-995. The CCK suppression was significantly correlated with the suppression of pancreatic exocrine secretion. This clinical study under the setting of SAT demonstrated not only the direct inhibitory effect of somatostatin on both the islet and acinar cells but also, probably, the indirect inhibitory effect on the acinal cells via suppression of CCK release in humans.