Background: The prevalence of postoperative macular pucker and the factors associated with its development after successful surgery for proliferative vitreoretinopathy (PVR) using silicone oil or gas tamponade are unknown.
Methods: The postoperative status of the macula was determined by reviewing the photographs of 336 eyes taken 6 months after randomization. Two hundred eleven eyes with attached maculas were identified and analyzed to determine the prevalence of macular pucker after silicone oil and gas tamponades in eyes without (group 1) and with (group 2) previous vitrectomy surgery. Data obtained at baseline, from the primary study surgery, and from subsequent examinations and repeat surgeries during a follow-up period of 6 months were analyzed for factors associated with postoperative macular pucker.
Results: The 6-month-point prevalence rate of postoperative macular pucker was 15% (32 of 211 eyes). Ten of the 32 eyes were new cases of macular pucker. The authors were unable to document a difference in the 6-month-point prevalence of postoperative macular pucker between group 1 and group 2 eyes (13% versus 18%) or between eyes randomized to gas versus silicone oil (19% versus 12%). Postoperative pucker was three times as likely to develop in aphakic/pseudophakic eyes compared with phakic eyes (P = 0.02). Focal contraction posteriorly causing starfolds, and intravitreal contraction involving the vitreous base or vitreous cavity, were significantly less prevalent in eyes with postoperative macular pucker (P < 0.05). Large (> or = 2 disc diameters) retinal breaks (P = 0.04) were associated significantly with postoperative macular pucker (P = 0.04). The authors were unable to document an association between postoperative macular pucker and the type of adhesive modality used or the extent of its application. Postoperative visual acuity was significantly better if the macula was not puckered (P < 0.01).
Conclusions: The occurrence of macular pucker after successful surgery for retinal detachments complicated by severe PVR is not influenced by the choice of intraocular tamponade. Certain preoperative factors may be associated with postoperative macular pucker.