Mutations in fibrillar collagens (types I, II, III, and XI), fibril-associated collagen (type IX), and network-forming collagen (type X) cause a spectrum of diseases of bone, cartilage, and blood vessels

Hum Mutat. 1997;9(4):300-15. doi: 10.1002/(SICI)1098-1004(1997)9:4<300::AID-HUMU2>3.0.CO;2-9.


This review summarizes the data on 278 different mutations found to date in the genes for types I, II, III, IX, X, and XI collagens from 317 apparently unrelated patients. A majority (217 mutations; 78% of the total) of the mutations are single-base and either change the codon of a critical amino acid (63%), or lead to abnormal RNA splicing (13%). Most of the amino acid substitutions are those of a bulkier amino acid for the obligatory glycine of the repeating-Gly-X-Y-sequence of the collagen triple helix (155; 56%). Altogether, 26 different mutations (9.4% of the mutations) occur in more than one unrelated individual. The 65 patients in whom the 26 mutations were characterized constitute almost one-fifth (20.5%) of the 317 patients analyzed. The mutations in types I, II, III, IX, X, and XI collagens cause a wide spectrum of diseases of bone, cartilage, and blood vessels, including osteogenesis imperfecta, a variety of chondrodysplasias, types IV and VII of the Ehlers-Danlos syndrome, and, rarely, some forms of osteoporosis, osteoarthritis, and familial aneurysms.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Collagen / genetics*
  • Collagen Diseases / genetics*
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Humans
  • Mice
  • Mutation / genetics*


  • Collagen